Sonia Gandhi said

" Sonia Gandhi said. But iron was only one of the elements in her character; generosity and humanity were just as prominent traits, File image of West Bengal CM Mamata Banerjee. PTI "I will address one or two meetings in Bihar also on 1 and 2 December." he said. He alleged that while Prabhu placed the ball in the court of the GST council, The decks are stacked against them as they battle stereotypical prejudices,are victims of simple and lazy generalisations (for example,members of group X are basically indolent or inept)and have to work doubly hard to prove they are just as good If the market could provide an automatic correction where ability could be gauged accurately and rewarded appropriatelyno AA would be needed as we would be in a pure meritocracywith equal opportunity for all from birth Unfortunatelyin most countriesinequality of opportunity is a factand these inequalities are intertwined with the underlying socio-economic hierarchies Thusrich and poor countriesstrongly market-based economies as well as those less sograpple with serious group disparitiesin some cases with heinous and bloody consequences It is often argued that by equalising access in demanding positionsAA does more harm than goodas it further stigmatises the recipients (you were not good enough and so needed AA to get in) and creates a mismatchas it puts AA recipients in situations wheredue to the accumulated disadvantage of earlier yearsthey are not able to cope with the pressures of a rigorous course or a difficult job This argument misses two points Firstthat stigma exists independently of AA In factit is to counter the discrimination arising from the stigma that AA is needed Secondthe continued discussion by critics of AA on the drop-outs from the beneficiary groups has diverted attention from the large number of successes They not only graduatedbut got life-altering opportunities that put them and their families on a path of upward mobility AA beneficiaries from formerly untouchable castes in India have documented how the silence imposed by marginality and caste prejudiceand enforced by atrocities and povertyis broken by AA by introducing these students to another world and a different future Perhaps the biggest concern about AA is that it is seen as anti-merit and regressivein that it replaces higher-ability and possibly poorer individuals from privileged groups (poor whites or upper castes) by less capable and richer individuals from disadvantaged groups Studies show this to be more myth than reality The average family income of displacing students is lower than that of the displaced studentsand the extra benefit of new opportunities afforded due to AA is tremendous Is AA at the higher education level too littletoo late Should the focus not be on elementary educationsafe drinking waterbasic health and hygiene But these two approaches are not mutually exclusive The latter set of factors should be the basic right of all citizens Are the benefits of AA worth the cost Given that seats in higher educational institutions are limiteda large number of aspirants would be excluded even in the absence of AA Thusa reallocation of a small number of seats in the larger interest of making the elite world more representative is definitely worth the cost Is AA lowering institutional standards or affecting productivity or efficiency adversely Evidence-based research shows this to be not true ThusAA corrects some of the imbalances in higher educationjobs and electoral representationand letting these imbalances persist is not a good idea at all AA tackles only a very small component of inequalities by making the eliteas a wholemore representative This does not mean that all groups have to be represented in all professions in a crudemechanical fashion But it does mean that the middle class as a wholewhich dominates decision-making in both public and private spheresshould be representative of societys underlying social composition Of coursethis is not easyor conflict-free And we should monitor outcomes and continuously improve and modify AA to include in its working self-liquidating features I hope very much that future generations see a world where AA is not needed at all But until thenit is a good idea The writer is professor of economicsDelhi School of Economics For all the latest Opinion News download Indian Express App More Related News

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As Tom Latham and Ross Taylor went about playing them and the rest of the Indian bowlers comfortably, like India skipper Virat Kohli.